In 1853, across the Atlantic, Joseph Arthur de Gobineau, a French count, first identified the
"Aryan" race as "great, noble, and fruitful in the works of man on this earth." Half a century later, as the eugenics movement gathered force in the U.S., "experts" began dividing white
people into distinct races. In 1899, William Z. Ripley, an economist, concluded that Europeans
consisted of "three races": the brave, beautiful, blond "Teutons"; the stocky "Alpines"; and the swarthy "Mediterranean's."
White supremacists have based their ideas on a variety of theories and supposedly proven facts; the most prominent of these include the claims of pseudoscientific racist academic research that attempted to correlate inferiority and pathological behavior with categories of racial phenotypes, especially head size in the case of eugenics. White supremacist belief has also been justified by the Biblical Hamitic hypothesis, which viewed blacks as the descendants of Ham who would be cursed for life.
In fact, some striking, and particularly brutal examples of terrorism can be found domestically, throughout the United States' fraught history of race relations.
Lynching was the most common form of terrorism employed by White southerners desperately clinging to the legacy of a racial caste system they felt was wrongfully stolen from them in the Civil War.
As the first constitutional rights were granted to freedmen in the latter half of the 1860s by the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments, many whites began to blame the newly rising black population for their own struggles.
This deep-seated resentment and fear of losing their own privilege felt by southern Democrats led to a string of terror-attacks against both black and white Republicans, as lynching's
became common and thousands of voters were slaughtered during Reconstruction by desperate whites who constituted a minority of the population in some southern states.
Post-Civil War tensions apexes in 1876 when Democrats retook control of state legislatures, quickly followed by the removal of federal troops from the south the next year — marking a definitive end to the Reconstruction era.
Almost forty years later, D.W. Griffith's propaganda film Nation would cement the white mythology of the events, depicting black Republicans in southern state legislatures as barbaric, sexually aggressive caricatures of men.
Despite whites regaining political power in the south, lynching's only intensified through the turn of the century as a means of striking terror into black citizens and preventing them from exercising their right to vote.
Coupled with a myriad of new legal mechanisms intended to disenfranchise African Americans, the Jim Crow era was born, and a new racial caste system emerged, dependent on the regular terrorism perpetrated by white, southern, Christian Democrats and sanctioned by local governments.
From the end of Reconstruction until the civil rights movement, over two-hundred anti-lynching bills were introduced in the U.S. Congress. Seven Presidents even asked specifically for an anti-lynching bill, but every effort was inevitably blocked by a Democratic filibuster in the Senate.
Meanwhile, all-white juries in the south would frequently use legal loopholes such as jury nullification (a device which had previously been used by juries in the north to avoid prosecuting fugitive slaves) to ensure that white terrorists were sanctioned both federally and locally to continue upholding the Jim Crow caste system by any means necessary.
One of the most horrific instances of white nationalist terrorism perpetrated in the United States began in Tulsa, Oklahoma on Memorial Day, 1921, the same way many other incidents at the time did — when a young black man was accused of sexually assaulting a white woman.
As word began to spread that a nineteen-year-old black shoe shiner had allegedly assaulted a white elevator operator (there was no evidence to support this claim) bolstered by rumors of a lynching in a 'sensationalist' local newspaper, a white mob formed the following day outside the Tulsa courthouse.
The terrified young man had fled the night before to his mother's house in Greenwood, a historically African American neighborhood of the city, before being taken into custody. Black residents gathered several blocks away from the courthouse on Greenwood Avenue, discussing their options as they recalled recent lynching's and were determined to prevent another.
Many of the older, wealthier residents warned against a dramatic response, worried that it would backfire and put at risk the capital they had invested in Greenwood's thriving commercial district, commonly referred to as the "Black Wall Street" at the time.
A group of the younger men, many of them World War I veterans, nevertheless armed themselves and marched to the courthouse, announcing their intention to help the Sheriff protect the wrongly accused young man. The Sheriff asked them to leave, but not before the mob present had time to soak in the image of the armed group of young black men in front of them. White men quickly ran home to get their own guns, a group of them attempting unsuccessfully to storm Tulsa's National Guard armory, and the now well armed crowd outside the courthouse grew larger as tensions flared.
That evening, a larger group of around seventy young black men returned to the courthouse armed, and a white man reportedly fired the first shot after a black man refused demands to give up his weapon. Both sides immediately opened fire following the first shot, leaving over ten people dead outside the courthouse in the initial confrontation.
The outnumbered black men retreated towards Greenwood as an all-out firefight ensued, with the manic white mob shooting any blacks in sight and looting stores to restock on ammunition along the way.
The scene that followed for the rest of the night was one of abject terror for black residents of Tulsa, as they were killed indiscriminately, and many began to flee the city. By the end of the night, another angry white mob formed outside the courthouse but was still denied entry, their attempts at a lynching thwarted.
Sometime around 1am on the first day of June 1921, the white mob set fire to several businesses on the edge of Greenwood, reportedly sending away firefighters who arrived at gunpoint. It only took a few hours for the blaze to spread out of control, and by early morning Greenwood residents had either fled the city in terror or dug in to defend themselves and their property.
At daybreak a train whistle rang out, and the white mobs began to swarm into Greenwood. Shooting indiscriminately while taking casualties of their own from snipers and entrenched residents, the mob pushed blacks further north to the edge of the city. White residents began to enter homes throughout Greenwood, looting them and ordering occupants onto the street where they were herded to detention centers.
Eyewitness reports described watching as airplanes flew overhead, strafing residents on the streets with rifle fire and firebombs. The six biplane trainers left-over from World War I added to the already catastrophic damage done to Greenwood by the mobs and fires, in an aerial support campaign that police later described as intended to prevent a "negro uprising".
The National Guard arrived with just over one-hundred troops from Oklahoma City on the Governor's orders shortly after 9 a.m., declaring martial law nearly three hours later at 11:49 a.m. after having consulted with local officials. By noon the rest of the fighting had been suppressed, and Greenwood, a thriving success story of black prosperity and wealth only a day earlier, was essentially destroyed.
Estimates of how many were killed in the terror campaign range from thirty to three hundred, although the exact number is impossible to know considering how many residents were killed by the fires and the rush to bury bodies resulted in spotty record-keeping.
Almost two hundred businesses were recorded as lost in the fires, as well as over a thousand homes, several churches, and the only black hospital in the district. An estimated 10,000 Greenwood residents were left homeless.
Fitting with the narrative of white supremacy inherent in most U.S. history, no prosecution was ever moved forward for any of the riot's white perpetrators and the terrorist actions of Tulsa's white population were largely scrubbed from their collective memory for the next seventy-five years.
A state government led commission started in 1996 would eventually provide a comprehensive analysis of the events and recommend that reparations be paid to survivors and their descendants, a request fulfilled by the state legislature in 2001 in the form of three-hundred college scholarships offered to descendants of Greenwood residents.
Ku Klux Klan:
The Ku Klux Klan has three distinctive time periods in history. The first period was in 1865 and right after the civil war. The 19th-century Klan was originally organized as a social club by Confederate veterans in Pulaski, Tennessee, in 1866. They apparently derived the name from the Greek word Kyklos, from which comes the English "circle"; "Klan" was added for the sake of importance and Ku Klux Klan emerged. The organization quickly became a vehicle for Southern white underground resistance to Radical Reconstruction. Klan members sought the restoration of white supremacy through intimidation and violence aimed at the newly enfranchised Black freedmen. A similar organization, the Knights of the White Camelia, began in Louisiana in 1867.
In 1867, the Klan was structured into the "Invisible Empire of the South in Nashville, Tennessee, and fell under the leadership of Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest, who became the first Grand Wizard. They dressed in robes and sheets designed to frighten superstitious blacks and to prevent identification by the occupying federal troops, and they whipped and killed freedmen and their white supporters in nighttime raids. By 1882, the Klan had virtuously disappeared.
The second period was in 1915. and in the 1920's there were over 4,000,000 Klan members in the United States. It is when the burning cross became a staple, along with the white robes. The hatred for Black people became the focal point along with Catholics.
The Great Depression saw membership dwindle, and there was a re-surgency during the 1960's when the civil rights movement began. President Lyndon Johnson denounced the Klan but had a staunch dislike for Negroes. Also, President Woodrow Wilson was a card-carrying member of the Klan.
Aryan Brotherhood of Texas one of the largest and most violent white supremacist prison gangs in the United States, responsible for murders and other violent crimes. This is not the original Aryan Brotherhood, which was founded in 1966 in California. In recent years numerous other states have adopted the Aryan Brotherhood name. There are Aryan Brotherhood factions in Maryland, Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas, and other states.
Aryan Nation is considered a terrorist threat in the United States.
Volksfront describes itself as an international fraternal organization for persons of European descent.
American Renaissance is a "race realist and white advocacy website.
Ghost Face Gangsters was founded by Cobb County Jail inmates in 2000. For years, it was largely a prison gang for white inmates, offering protection, drugs and cellphones. Unlike other white gangs like the Aryan Nations, it was not centered on racist ideology. Their rise is based on demographics who prey on predominately white counties and white inmates in jail or prison. They are connected to cartel operatives in Atlanta, GA, largely because they are not recognized as a White Supremacist gang. However, many Georgia Law Enforcement consider them to be a street gang, prison gang, and white supremacist gang.
Many Black nationalists identify as "Muslim," however mainstream Islam rejects Black Nationalist ideology. They are antigovernment, anti-police, racist, and have radical religious ideas. Black nationalism is a type of political thought that seeks to promote, develop and maintain a black race identity for people of black ancestry.
The black nationalist movement is a reaction to centuries of institutionalized white supremacy in America. Black nationalists believe the answer to white racism is to form separate institutions, or even a separate nation for black people. Most forms of black nationalism are strongly anti-white and anti-Semitic. Some religious versions assert that black people are the biblical "chosen people" of God.
Nation of Islam:
The main belief of The Nation of Islam and its followers is that there is no god but Allah. Their most important worship is praying five times a day.
Elijah Muhammad believed that the white race was created by Yakub, a black scientist, and that Allah had allowed this devilish race to hold power for 6,000 years. Their time was up in 1914, and the 20th century was to be the time for black people to assert themselves. This myth supported a program of economic self-sufficiency, the development of black-owned businesses, and a demand for the creation of a separate black nation to be carved out of the states of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. Elijah also encouraged his followers to drop their
"slave" names in favor of Muslim names or, in most cases, an "X," signifying that they had lost their identities in slavery and did not know their true names.
Louis Farrakhan, original name Louis Eugene Walcott, was born in Bronx, New York, and became leader in 1978) of the Nation of Islam, an African American movement that combined elements of Islam with black nationalism. Farrakhan has praised Adolf Hitler and Mommar
Five Percent Nation of God's and Earth:
That five percent nation feel they are the original people of the earth; that they are the fathers and mothers of civilization; that the science of Supreme Mathematics is the key to understanding man's relationship to the universe; that Islam is a natural way of life-Not a religion; that the Black man is God and his proper name is ALLAH.
The Five Percent Nation believes that Ten percent of the people of the world know the truth of existence, and those elites opt to keep 85 percent of the world in ignorance and under their controlling thumb. The remaining percentage are those who know the truth and are determined to enlighten the rest. They are the Five Percent Nation.
The New Black Panther Party is a virulently racist and antisemitic organization whose leaders have encouraged violence against whites, Jews and law enforcement officers. They were founded in Dallas, Texas, and the group portrays itself as a militant, modern-day expression of
the Moorish Science Temple of America is an American national and religious organization founded by Noble Drew Ali black power movement.
The Moors. He based it on the premise that African Americans are descendants of the Moabites and thus are "Moorish" by nationality, and Islamic by faith. Members of the Moorish sovereigns, called Moors, have come into conflict with federal and state authorities over their refusal to obey laws and government regulations. Recently, Moorish sovereign citizens have engaged in violent confrontations with law enforcement.
They have also been known to retaliate against government authorities through financial means — a process called "paper terrorism." Moorish sovereigns espouse an interpretation of sovereign doctrine that African Americans constitute an elite class within American society with special rights and privileges that convey on them a sovereign immunity placing them beyond federal and state authority.
The Washitaw Nation appears to be the earliest sovereign citizen group that began merging Moorish identity and heritage with sovereign citizen concepts. They consider themselvex original Muurs (Moors) of Dugdahmoundyah.
Moorish sovereign citizens often display an emblem that consists of a scarlet red rectangular
banner or flag with a five-pointed green star located just left of center. In Moorish legal filings,
Moorish sovereign citizens refer to themselves with a series of Africanized names that
incorporate the words "bey," or "el," or a combination of the two. The Moorish sovereign
citizen movement has no unified leadership. Most operate as individuals and get information
about Moorish sovereignty online or from paid seminars taught by sovereign gurus. In
contrast, Moorish sovereign citizen groups generally are small, consisting of a couple of dozen
followers, many of whom are nominally led by one or two charismatic individuals who profit from the promotion of Moorish doctrines and the preparation and sale of bogus legal documents to those embracing their Moorish nationality or heritage.
Gavin Eugene Long who shot six police officers in Baton Rouge, Louisiana was a member of the Dugdahmoundyah tribe.